在Android中探秘建造者模式

前言

在Android开发过程中,我发现很多安卓源代码里应用了设计模式,比较常用的有适配器模式(各种adapter),建造者模式(Alert Dialog的构建)等等。虽然我们对大多数设计模式都有所了解,但是在应用设计模式的这个方面,感觉很多人在这方面有所不足。所以,我们可以看看Android源代码里面是怎样实现各种设计模式的,从而可以加深我们对设计模式的理解,从而方便我们以后对它的应用。今天,我们就来谈谈设计者模式(Builder Pattern)

定义

建造者模式(Builder Pattern)也叫做生成器模式,其定义如下:

Separate the construction of a complex object from its representation so that the same construction process can create different representions.
将一个复杂对象的构建与它的表示分离,使得同样的构建过程可以创建不同的表示。

它的意思就是将一个对象和怎么构建这个对象分离开来,如果你想构建一个对象,你把这个消息告诉构建者,并且将自己对这个对象的各种要求告诉建造者,然后建造者根据这些要求进行捣鼓,然后,你所需要的一个对象就出来了。

Android源代码AlertDialog的实现

我们先来看下AlertDialog的源代码(只列出关键代码):

public class AlertDialog extends Dialog implements DialogInterface {

    ...

    protected AlertDialog(Context context, int theme) {
    this(context, theme, true);
    }

    AlertDialog(Context context, int theme, boolean createThemeContextWrapper) {
        super(context, resolveDialogTheme(context, theme), createThemeContextWrapper);

        mWindow.alwaysReadCloseOnTouchAttr();
        mAlert = new AlertController(getContext(), this, getWindow());
    }

    protected AlertDialog(Context context, boolean cancelable, OnCancelListener cancelListener) {
        super(context, resolveDialogTheme(context, 0));
        mWindow.alwaysReadCloseOnTouchAttr();
        setCancelable(cancelable);
        setOnCancelListener(cancelListener);
        mAlert = new AlertController(context, this, getWindow());
    }

    public static class Builder {
        private final AlertController.AlertParams P;
        private int mTheme;


        public Builder(Context context) {
            this(context, resolveDialogTheme(context, 0));
        }


        public Builder(Context context, int theme) {
            P = new AlertController.AlertParams(new ContextThemeWrapper(
                    context, resolveDialogTheme(context, theme)));
            mTheme = theme;
        }


        public Builder setMessage(CharSequence message) {
            P.mMessage = message;
            return this;
        }

        public AlertDialog create() {
            final AlertDialog dialog = new AlertDialog(P.mContext, mTheme, false);
            P.apply(dialog.mAlert);
            dialog.setCancelable(P.mCancelable);
            if (P.mCancelable) {
                dialog.setCanceledOnTouchOutside(true);
            }
            dialog.setOnCancelListener(P.mOnCancelListener);
            dialog.setOnDismissListener(P.mOnDismissListener);
            if (P.mOnKeyListener != null) {
                dialog.setOnKeyListener(P.mOnKeyListener);
            }
            return dialog;
        }
        ...
    }
}

从上面我们可以清楚地看到:AlertDialog的Build是一个静态内部类(在有些情况下,我们会单独定义一个Build抽象类,然后用具体类来继承它,实现具体的功能)。我们对AlertDialog设置的属性会暂时保存在Build类的成员变量P(AlertController.AlertParams)中。同时,我们注意到我们设置的属性,它都回返回本身的AlertBuild对象,这样我们就可以不停地调用它设置的方法。

如果我们想获得这个AlertDialog。我们就需要调用建造者的create()方法,在create()方法里面它就会构造出一个Dialog实例,并且将我们刚才设置的属性全部赋给AlertDialog,最后返回AlertDialog的实例。

UniversalImageLoader上面建造者的实现

看完了AlertDialog,我们这边再看一个实例,那就是Android开源框架UniversalImageLoader的DisplayImageOptions类,下面是它的一些核心代码:

public final class DisplayImageOptions {

private final int imageResOnLoading;
private final int imageResForEmptyUri;
private final int imageResOnFail;
private final Drawable imageOnLoading;
private final Drawable imageForEmptyUri;
private final Drawable imageOnFail;
private final boolean resetViewBeforeLoading;
private final boolean cacheInMemory;
private final boolean cacheOnDisk;
private final ImageScaleType imageScaleType;
private final Options decodingOptions;
private final int delayBeforeLoading;
private final boolean considerExifParams;
private final Object extraForDownloader;
private final BitmapProcessor preProcessor;
private final BitmapProcessor postProcessor;
private final BitmapDisplayer displayer;
private final Handler handler;
private final boolean isSyncLoading;

private DisplayImageOptions(Builder builder) {
    imageResOnLoading = builder.imageResOnLoading;
    imageResForEmptyUri = builder.imageResForEmptyUri;
    imageResOnFail = builder.imageResOnFail;
    imageOnLoading = builder.imageOnLoading;
    imageForEmptyUri = builder.imageForEmptyUri;
    imageOnFail = builder.imageOnFail;
    resetViewBeforeLoading = builder.resetViewBeforeLoading;
    cacheInMemory = builder.cacheInMemory;
    cacheOnDisk = builder.cacheOnDisk;
    imageScaleType = builder.imageScaleType;
    decodingOptions = builder.decodingOptions;
    delayBeforeLoading = builder.delayBeforeLoading;
    considerExifParams = builder.considerExifParams;
    extraForDownloader = builder.extraForDownloader;
    preProcessor = builder.preProcessor;
    postProcessor = builder.postProcessor;
    displayer = builder.displayer;
    handler = builder.handler;
    isSyncLoading = builder.isSyncLoading;
}
...
public static class Builder {
    private int imageResOnLoading = 0;
    private int imageResForEmptyUri = 0;
    private int imageResOnFail = 0;
    private Drawable imageOnLoading = null;
    private Drawable imageForEmptyUri = null;
    private Drawable imageOnFail = null;
    private boolean resetViewBeforeLoading = false;
    private boolean cacheInMemory = false;
    private boolean cacheOnDisk = false;
    private ImageScaleType imageScaleType = ImageScaleType.IN_SAMPLE_POWER_OF_2;
    private Options decodingOptions = new Options();
    private int delayBeforeLoading = 0;
    private boolean considerExifParams = false;
    private Object extraForDownloader = null;
    private BitmapProcessor preProcessor = null;
    private BitmapProcessor postProcessor = null;
    private BitmapDisplayer displayer = DefaultConfigurationFactory.createBitmapDisplayer();
    private Handler handler = null;
    private boolean isSyncLoading = false;

public Builder() {
        decodingOptions.inPurgeable = true;
        decodingOptions.inInputShareable = true;
    }

    /**
     * Stub image will be displayed in {@link com.nostra13.universalimageloader.core.imageaware.ImageAware
     * image aware view} during image loading
     *
     * @param imageRes Stub image resource
     * @deprecated Use {@link #showImageOnLoading(int)} instead
     */
    @Deprecated
    public Builder showStubImage(int imageRes) {
        imageResOnLoading = imageRes;
        return this;
    }

    /**
     * Incoming image will be displayed in {@link com.nostra13.universalimageloader.core.imageaware.ImageAware
     * image aware view} during image loading
     *
     * @param imageRes Image resource
     */
    public Builder showImageOnLoading(int imageRes) {
        imageResOnLoading = imageRes;
        return this;
    }
    /** Builds configured {@link DisplayImageOptions} object */
    public DisplayImageOptions build() {
        return new DisplayImageOptions(this);
    }
    ...
    }
}

它比AlertDialog实现更为简单一点,直接将属性定义在Builder的成员变量中,然后将Builder对象返回给DisplayImageOptions中直接进行赋值,这样做的话,将初始化对象的复杂逻辑全部交给了Builder类,而使我们需要的DisplayImageOptions显得非常的干净,功能也相当的简洁明了。

最后,如果本文有什么疏漏的话,还请指正。

口号:Make things Interesting!